Affordability differences by area for working households buying their homes - 2003 update

Steve Wilcox

This update further demonstrates the problems facing working households trying to buy homes in some local authority areas before concluding with an assessment of the implications of the data for policy makers.

Data on house prices for two/three-bedroom dwellings in the fourth quarter of 2003 is compared with gross household earned incomes to produce robust estimates of affordability across England. Some of the main findings and conclusions:

  • the average ratio of house price to household gross earned income ratio in England was 4.11 to 1; 
  • affordability issues now affect the South West region (4.66 to 1) and not just London (4.69 to 1) and the South East (4.61 to 1); 
  • on this basis the decision to concentrate new affordable housing on London and the 'wider south east' should be reviewed;
  • there are also affordability concerns in smaller rural districts across England, raising questions about the adequacy of government programmes designed to promote affordable housing in rural areas.
Summary

Summary

This study provides a range of analyses of the difficulties working households aged 20 to 39 face in accessing home ownership in every area of England at the end of 2003. It is based on local prices for two- and three-bedroom dwellings, and draws on a range of data sources. The new analyses, by Steve Wilcox at the University of York, demonstrate that affordability issues now affect the South West region and not just London and the South East; these analyses update the 2002 analysis.

  • Access to home ownership is most problematic in London, where the ratio of average house price to household gross earned income is 4.69 to 1. Ratios exceed 5.0 to 1 in nine areas; in Westminster and Brent the ratio exceeds 6.0 to 1. Ratios are lower than 4.0 to 1 in five areas. All ratios should be considered in relation to the ratio of mortgage advance to household gross earned income, which rarely exceeds 3.5 to 1.
  • Outside London, access to home ownership is most problematic in the South West region, where average house price to household gross earned income ratios are 4.66 to 1. Average ratios exceed 5 to 1 in 21 areas; the ratio exceeds 6 to 1 in West Somerset, Christchurch, North Cornwall, Torridge and East Devon, though samples in the first two are particularly small. Ratios are lower than 4 to 1 in five areas.
  • Access to home ownership is nearly as problematic in the South East region, where average ratios are 4.61 to 1. They exceed 5 to 1 in 17 areas, including all of East Sussex. While it is only in Chichester that the ratio exceeds 6 to 1, ratios are lower than 4 to 1 in four areas.
  • Average ratios exceed 5 to 1 in four areas in the East of England and in two northerly 'hotspots' (Derbyshire Dales and South Lakeland).
  • Over the past year, affordability issues in the South West have worsened relative to London and the South East, due to greater house price rises. This reinforces the case for the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM) to review its current plans to concentrate increased funding for affordable housing in London and the wider south east.

Background

This analysis provides an update to one element of the affordability analyses published by the Foundation last year in the first 'Can work: can't buy' report.

It is based on house prices for two-/three-bedroom dwellings in each area in the fourth quarter of 2003, derived from the Survey of Mortgage Lenders. This data provides a consistent measure of house prices for a modest size family dwelling in every local authority area in England. (It is preferred to Land Registry house price data, as that is based on a variable size mix of dwellings in each area, and cannot therefore provide a standardised measure of the difficulty of accessing owner-occupation as between one area and another.)

The analysis is confined to working households with a representative aged between 20 and 39. The great majority of first-time home-buying households are drawn from this age group.

House price to household income ratios

High ratios of price to earned income generally make homes unaffordable for first-time buyers. This analysis is based on gross household earned incomes; not the incomes of individuals. This is because it is households that buy houses, and in the majority of cases this involves households with two working adults.

Table 1 shows that there are marked regional differences in the relationship between individual and household earned incomes; these are overlooked when ratios are constructed solely on levels of individual earnings.

Table 1: Regional household earned incomes
north east north west Yorks and the humber east midlands west midlands east London south east south west England
Numbers of workers in working households (000's)
One 116 297 244 185 226 261 431 359 176 2,295
Two (+) 153 379 303 290 322 398 552 535 292 3,224
All 269 676 546 475 547 659 984 893 469 5,519
Annual earnings at 2003 levels
One £17,376 £21,448 £20,364 £21,605 £20,976 £27,226 £34,971 £28,681 £26,221 £25,789
Two (+) £36,049 £37,661 £35,813 £40,250 £38,099 £43,782 £62,405 £47,180 £36,145 £44,175
All £28,226 £30,613 £28,956 £33,022 £30,888 £37,352 £50,505 £39,733 £32,444 £36,549
Ratio of earnings between multiple and single earner households
2.07 1.76 1.76 1.86 1.82 1.61 1.78 1.64 1.38 1.71

Gross earned income data, at the regional level, is taken from the Expenditure and Food Survey (EFS). Local income data is only available for individuals, and for this analysis it has been derived from Inland Revenue Survey (IRS) data. It is combined with Labour Force Survey (LFS) data, showing the numbers of working households with single or multiple adult earners, in order to compute local household gross earnings figures consistent with the regional earnings figures taken direct from EFS. The earnings figures are all then uprated to 2003 levels. A detailed note on data sources and methodologies is set out in the Appendices at the end of this document.

The results

The average ratio of house price to household gross earned income ratio in England was 4.11 to 1, while regional average ratios range from 4.69 to 1 in London to 3.19 to 1 in the North East (see Table 2).

Table 2: Regional house price to income ratios for working households aged 20-39, based on gross household earnings and mean house prices for two and three-bedroom dwellings (Quarter 4, 2003)
Region Numbers of working households Household earned income mean house prices house price to income ratios
London 818,836 £50,504 £237,053 4.69
South West 482,554 £32,444 £151,147 4.66
South East 820,275 £39,734 £183,175 4.61
East of England 572,729 £37,353 £159,393 4.27
West Midlands 499,106 £30,889 £117,315 3.80
Yorkshire & Humber 511,539 £28,957 £99,642 3.44
East Midlands 412,391 £33,023 £113,036 3.42
North West 649,450 £30,613 £101,045 3.30
North East 235,590 £28,227 £89,976 3.19
ENGLAND 5,002,470 £36,549 £150,235 4.11

It is of particular note that house price to income ratios are now higher in the South West region than in the South East. The average ratio in the South West is 4.66 to 1, while in the South East it is 4.61 to 1. This is despite the average house price in the South East (£183,175) being 21.2% higher than those in the South West (£151,147). However, the average income of working households in the South East (£39,734) is 22.5% higher than those in the South West (£32,444).

The forty individual areas with the highest ratios are ranked in Table 3. In nine areas the ratios are over 6.0 to 1. Altogether, in fifty-four areas the ratio exceeds 5.0 to 1. The ratios for every local authority area in England are listed online in Appendix 1, by region.

Table 3: House price to income ratios for working households age 20-39, based on gross household earnings and mean house prices for two and three-bedroom dwellings (quarter 4, 2003)
Local authority Numbers of working households household earned income mean house prices house price to income ratios
1. West Somerset (SW)*✝☦ 1,802 £24,165 £164,245 6.80
2. Christchurch (SW)✝ 1,983 £28,594 £191,945 6.71
3. North Cornwall (SW) 5,487 £25,161 £164,529 6.54
4. Torridge (SW)* 4,782 £24,142 £157,209 6.51
5. Westminster (Lon) 23,154 £67,387 £415,558 6.17
6. Chichester (SE) 8,616 £38,110 £233,324 6.12
7. Adur (SE) 5,303 £28,198 £172,312 6.11
8. East Devon (SW) 8,824 £30,013 £180,675 6.02
9. Brent (Lon) 20,768 £37,870 £227,851 6.02
10. Lewes (SE) 6,315 £30,776 £180,475 5.86
11. Purbeck (SW)*✝ 2,739 £30,134 £176,662 5.86
12. Eastbourne (SE) 7,536 £26,988 £157,711 5.84
13. Torbay UA (SW) 12,517 £25,140 £145,954 5.81
14. South Lakeland (NW) 10,042 £27,573 £159,641 5.79
15. Mole Valley (SE) 5.793 £43,140 £247,102 5.73
16. Bournemouth UA (SW) 21,218 £29,298 £166,733 5.69
17. Kerrier (SW) 6,203 £26,111 £148,362 5.68
18. Penwith (SW) 5,661 £28,769 £163,040 5.67
19. Carrick (SW) 8,093 £29,159 £164,983 5.66
20. Brighton and Have UA (SE) 32,149 £34,221 £191,860 5.61
21. Arun (SE) 10,495 £32,081 £179,377 5.59
22. Cambridge (E) 12,252 £34,502 £191,396 5.55
23. West Devon (SW)*✝ 3,221 £30,903 £167,697 5.43
24. North Devon (SW) 6,877 £27,356 £148,390 5.42
25. Waltham Forest (Lon) 24,639 £34,756 £188,359 5.42
26. Southwark (Lon) 36,122 £42,431 £229,490 5.41
27. Oxford (SE) 12,759 £39,712 £214,275 5.40
28. South Hams (SW) 5,963 £32,239 £173,529 5.38
29. East Dorset (SW) 5,536 £37,978 £203,191 5.35
30. Ealing (Lon) 25,544 £45,681 £244,075 5.34
31. Hertsmere (E) 12,783 £44,559 £237,901 5.34
32. Newham (Lon) 28,394 £32,252 £170,967 5.30
33. Rother (SE) 7,926 £34,175 £181,155 5.30
34. Restormel (SW) 9,083 £27,318 £144,474 5.29
35. Islington (Lon) 25,414 £54,579 £288,114 5.28
36. Epping Forest (E) 11,403 £45,579 £236,421 5.25
37. Derbyshire Dales (E Mid)* 4,957 £32,365 £169,722 5.24
38. Weymouth and Portland (SW) 5,560 £29,449 £153,635 5.22
39. Salisbury (SW) 11,763 £32,574 £168,680 5.18
40. Weaden (SE) 10,243 £37,242 £192,679 5.17

Notes:
* House price data samples fewer than 50
✝ Households and employment data samples fewer than 30
☦ Income data samples fewer than 50

At first sight, these ratios may not appear to be exceptionally high, given the more relaxed attitudes of lenders to mortgage advance ratios in the context of interest rates that are at historically low levels. However, it should be borne in mind that these ratios are based on household earnings, not the earnings of one individual.

The results for the areas where the income, employment and house price figures are based on small samples must be treated with caution (see Table 3 here and Appendix 1 in the online version). This applies, in particular, to the three areas where the house price, employment and income figures are all based on small samples (Berwick-upon-Tweed, Teesdale and West Somerset).

Analysis of mortgage advances in 2002 shows that it is only rarely that the ratio of mortgage advance to income exceeds 4.0 to 1 when advances are based on a single earned income. Ratios rarely exceed 3.5 to 1 when based on multiple earned incomes. In both cases, these levels of ratios only occurred for just over 10% of the advances to first-time buyers in the three most expensive regions in the country. They were even less likely to be found in other parts of the country.

Implications of the analysis

These findings contrast with the assertion in the ODPM's 2003 'Sustainable Communities' plan, that affordability issues are more acute in the South East region than the South West. There are three main reasons for these different results:

  • The ODPM analysis was based on 2001 house price data, and did not take account of the more rapid rise in house prices in the South West in subsequent years.
  • The ODPM analysis is derived from earnings data based on an individual's place of work. Place of work data fails to take account of the impact of the predominantly high earners who commute into London from parts of the greater south east. It thus overstates the average earned incomes of individuals residing in London, and at the same time understates the earned incomes of individuals living in those parts of the South East.
  • The ODPM analysis is also based on the earned incomes of individuals rather than households, and thus fails to take into account the marked regional differences in the relationship between individual and household earnings (see Table 1).

The new 2003 analysis suggests that ODPM should review its previous policy decision to focus the growth in the provision of new affordable housing on London and the 'wider south east'.

The analysis also highlights the extent of affordability concerns in smaller rural districts, not just in parts of the south of England, but also in popular tourist and second home areas such as South Lakeland and Derbyshire Dales. This raises questions about the adequacy of government programmes to support the provision of affordable housing in rural areas.

About the project

The analysis was undertaken by Professor Steve Wilcox of the Centre for Housing Policy, University of York. It draws on Survey of Mortgage Lenders house price data, and data from the Expenditure and Food Survey, Labour Force Survey and Inland Revenue Survey to compute local household incomes.

This analysis is the first step in a wider study, which will define and identify the scope of 'intermediate housing markets' in each local authority area in England.

How to get further information
Details of house price to gross household income ratios, by local authority, county and region and of the data sources and the methodology applied in the construction of the 2003 house price to income ratios are available in the appendices below.

Appendices: Affordability differences by area for working households buying their homes - 2003 update

Appendix 1: House price to gross household income ratios by local authority, county and region (alphabetical order of region)
Local authority number of working households household earned income mean house prices house price to income ratios
East Midlands 412,391 £33,023 £113,036 3.42
Derbyshire
Amber Valley 11,696 £31,189 £103,953 3.33
Bolsover 7,491 £30,908 £79,810 2.58
Chesterfield 4,652 £33,048 £95,968 2.90
Derby UA 27,418 £31,606 £104,106 3.29
Derbyshire Dales* 4,957 £32,365 £169,722 5.24
Erewash 13,985 £32,599 £109,247 3.35
High Peak 9,799 £31,099 £127,458 4.10
North East Derbyshire 10,745 £29,274 £102,909 3.52
South Derbyshire 8,079 £34,282 £121,536 3.55
Leicestershire
Blaby 10,255 £31,990 £129,633 4.05
Charnwood 13,589 £35,316 £124,465 3.52
Harborough 7,208 £40,277 £144,640 3.59
Hinckley & Boswoth 9,352 £37,954 £119,932 3.16
Leicester UA 25,765 £27,264 £101,332 3.72
Melton✝ 4,022 £45,251 £125,375 2.77
North West Leicestershire 8,707 £39,634 £117,080 2.95
Oadby & Wigston 5,462 £32,895 £118,607 3.61
Rutland UA*✝ 3,357 £46,007 £137,745 2.99
Lincolnshire
Boston 5,956 £26,064 £103,000 3.95
East Lindsey 10,085 £26,684 £121,425 4.55
Lincoln 10,622 £28,160 £103,184 3.66
North Kesteven 10,463 £33,423 £113,827 3.41
South Holland 6,419 £33,692 £115,714 3.43
South Kesteven 14,930 £35,661 £123,504 3.46
West Lindsey 7,203 £33,516 £99,714 2.98
Northamptonshire
Corby 3,875 £34,013 £85,136 2.50
Daventry 5,945 £40,358 £149,651 3.71
East Northamptonshire 7,636 £44,381 £128,070 2.89
Kettering 8,455 £35,145 £114,561 3.26
Northampton 16,716 £35,462 £120,315 3.39
South Northamptonshire 6,100 £40,528 £152,046 3.75
Wellingborough 7,906 £36,297 £108,539 2.99
Nottinghamshire
Ashfield 11,805 £29,184 £92,932 3.18
Bassetlaw 11,677 £28,476 £92,290 3.24
Broxtowe 10,218 £33,468 £120,095 3.59
Gedling 10,556 £35,132 £111,629 3.18
Mansfield 8,907 £25,858 £83,793 3.24
Newark and Sherwood 12,132 £36,715 £112,269 3.06
Nottingham UA 29,247 £27,713 £94,871 3.42
Rushcliffe 8,999 £44,245 £167,659 3.79
East of England 572,729 £37,353 £159,393 4.27
Bedfordshire
Bedford 16,229 £34,772 £138,001 3.97
Luton UA 22,839 £32,781 £134,198 4.09
Mid Bedfordshire 16,815 £39,817 £161,922 4.07
South Bedfordshire 15,164 £38,022 £151,253 3.98
Cambridgeshire
Cambridge 12,252 £34,502 £191,396 5.55
East Cambridgeshire 8,689 £33,604 £141,145 4.20
Fenland 8,693 £32,905 £114,145 3.47
Huntingdonshire 18,208 £41,912 £132,297 3.16
Peterborough UA 17,070 £31,031 £105,215 3.39
South Cambridgeshire 15,050 £49,616 £172,002 3.47
Essex
Basildon 15,458 £39,566 £154,390 3.90
Braintree 13,312 £35,814 £151,856 4.24
Brentwood 4,734 £49,661 £218,608 4.40
Castle Point 8,332 £34,362 £174,137 5.07
Chelmsford 16,221 £44,873 £181,464 4.04
Colchester 17,173 £32,727 £140,692 4.30
Epping Forest 11,403 £45,064 £236,421 5.25
Harlow 8,076 £32,254 £143,354 4.44
Maldon 7,396 £36,863 £170,542 4.63
Rochford 6,233 £39,270 £170,588 4.34
Southend-on-Sea UA 17,351 £35,630 £155,191 4.36
Tendring 10,848 £29,717 £133,103 4.48
Thurrock UA 17,334 £33,833 £152,167 4.50
Uttlesford 6,135 £48,771 £212,935 4.37
Hertfordshire
Broxbourne 8,246 £37,856 £187,032 4.94
Dacorum 16,153 £44,515 £208,190 4.68
East Hertfordshire 16,428 £46,143 £198,168 4.29
Hertsmere 12,783 £44,559 £237,901 5.34
North Hertfordshire 14,431 £41,153 £190,711 4.63
St. Albans 15,152 £56,504 £239,044 4.23
Stevenage 11,086 £34,212 £143,012 4.18
Three Rivers 8,368 £50,283 £232,118 4.62
Watford 12,178 £39,861 £185,659 4.66
Welwyn Hatfield 7,996 £43,027 £212,579 4.94
Norfolk
Breckland 11,896 £27,342 £122,393 4.48
Broadland 11,561 £31,438 £142,062 4.52
Gret Yarmouth 9,271 £24,921 £110,426 4.43
Kings Lynn and West Norfolk 11,099 £29,305 £115,065 3.93
North Norfolk 7,645 £30,837 £136,082 4.41
Norwich 13,834 £27,028 £117,751 4.36
South Norfolk 10,242 £35,428 £147,369 4.16
Suffolk
Babergh 6,540 £30,717 £139,190 4.53
Forest Heath 8,052 £35,290 £130,001 3.68
Ipswich 11,479 £30,589 £120,612 3.94
Mid Suffolk 7,688 £36,530 £146,535 4.01
St. Edmundsbury 9,056 £31,279 £132,153 4.22
Suffolk Coastal 11,770 £40,869 £152,075 3.72
Waveney 8,760 £27,243 £114,202 4.19
London 818,836 £50,504 £237,053 4.69
Barking and Dagenham 16,871 £38,001 £150,615 3.96
Barnet 28,903 £52,317 £244,318 4.67
Bexley 18,082 £46,818 £179,988 3.84
Brent 20,768 £37,870 £227,851 6.02
Bromley 29,355 £50,192 £219,331 4.37
Camden 26,763 £68,052 £331,864 4.88
City of London 1,219 £154,818 £354,295 2.29
Croydon 39,205 £42,357 £191,860 4.53
Ealing 25,544 £45,681 £244,075 5.34
Enfield 27,499 £41,739 £209,957 5.03
Greenwich 23,597 £46,024 £183,398 3.98
Hackney 25,367 £38,977 £195,671 5.02
Hammersmith and Fulham 22,950 £62,093 £307,796 4.96
Haringey 19,573 £47,247 £208,917 4.42
Harrow 20,969 £51,185 £239,120 4.67
Havering 18,945 £44,326 £190,731 4.30
Hillingdon 21,131 £45,069 £217,479 4.83
Hounslow 20,822 £46,947 £234,438 4.99
Islington 25,414 £54,579 £288,114 5.28
Kensington and Chelsea 18,037 £120,209 £537,113 4.47
Kingston upon Thames 17,644 £51,425 £237,588 4.62
Lambeth 40,399 £44,839 £197,555 4.41
Lewisham 33,268 £37,701 £181,245 4.81
Merton 22,601 £56,334 £231,927 4.12
Newham 28,394 £32,353 £170,967 5.30
Redbridge 25,181 £45,824 £218,291 4.76
Richmond upon Thames 20,561 £74,923 £281,178 3.75
Southwark 36,122 £42,431 £229,490 5.41
Sutton 21,353 £47,377 £194,581 4.11
Tower Hamlets 30,644 £49,350 £240,234 4.87
Waltham Forest 24,639 £34,756 £188,359 5.42
Wandsworth 43,862 £67,425 £274,307 4.07
Westminster 23,154 £67,387 £415,558 6.17
North East 235,590 £28,227 £89,976 3.19
Cleveland
Hartlepool UA 7,811 £25,919 £72,753 2.81
Middlesbrough UA 10,920 £24,540 £74,740 3.05
Redcar and Cleveland UA 12,149 £28,548 £85,957 3.01
Stockton-on-Tees UA 16,705 £27,918 £87,586 3.14
Durham
Chester-le-Street 8,091 £31,728 £92,694 2.92
Darlington UA 8,704 £24,094 £91,452 3.80
Derwentside 8,439 £22,412 £72,136 3.22
Durham 7,430 £31,812 £87,089 2.74
Easington 7,838 £26,452 £74,111 2.80
Sedgefield 8,272 £29,735 £58,712 1.97
Teesdale*✝☦ 1,980 £29,109 £99,425 3.42
Wear Valley 6,123 £23,238 £78,595 3.38
Northumberland
Alnwick*✝ 3,434 £23,199 £115,956 5.00
Berwick-upon-Tweed*✝☦ 1,929 £24,581 £76,759 3.12
Blyth Valley 8,545 £28,473 £83,912 2.95
Castle Morpeth*✝ 2,705 £29,365 £140,952 4.80
Tynedale 4,726 £33,722 £142,396 4.22
Wansbeck 5,129 £28,770 £66,521 2.31
Tyne and Wear
Gateshead 17,927 £28,302 £93,836 3.32
Newcastle Upon Tyne 25,405 £31.270 £113,725 3.64
North Tyneside 22,816 £30,699 £98,515 3.21
South Tyneside 13,407 £27,314 £85,491 3.13
Sunderland 25,105 £27,726 £85,051 3.07
North West 649,450 £30,613 £101,045 3.30
Cheshire
Chester 9,122 £39,287 £138,709 3.53
Congleton 7,544 £39,876 £123,264 3.09
Crewe and Nantwich 11,720 £35,974 £105,104 2.92
Ellesmere Port & Neston 8,912 £35,407 £100,960 2.85
Halton UA 12,213 £30,018 £89,462 2.98
Macclesfield 15,697 £40,492 £151,884 3.75
Vale Royal 14,290 £34,869 £125,080 3.59
Warrington UA 14,148 £37,226 £115,593 3.11
Cumbria
Allerdale 7,683 £27,648 £81,968 2.96
Barrow-in-Furness 8,027 £24,194 £64,806 2.68
Carlisle 11,607 £25,893
£86,659
3.35
Copeland 7,245 £35,013 £68,948 1.97
Eden* 4,136 £29,919 £122,679 4.10
South Lakeland 10,042 £27,573 £159,641 5.79
Greater Manchester
Bolton 26,140 £31,096 £90,547 2.91
Bury 16,934 £31,420 £100,418 3.20
Manchester 40,778 £26,177 £104,207 3.98
Oldham 24,247 £29,473 £84,886 2.88
Rochdale 21,824 £26,872 £79,392 2.95
Salford 21,817 £29,046 £90,641 3.12
Stockport 20,912 £35,089 £125,327 3.57
Tameside 21,133 £29,772 £87,946 2.95
Trafford 21,698 £36,761 £148,973 4.05
Wigan 32,107 £29,803 £86,417 2.90
Lancashire
Blackburn UA 13,639 £27,503 £71,424 2.60
Blackpool UA 15,818 £27,883 £88,913 3.19
Burnley 7,726 £25,478 £65,896 2.59
Chorley 9,142 £34,973 £106,948 3.06
Fylde 8,287 £34,313 £148,242 4.32
Hyndburn 8,483 £26,312 £74,971 2.85
Lancaster 14,689 £29,440 £111,546 3.79
Pendle 7,631 £26,643 £76,739 2.88
Preston 14,760 £25,481 £94,007 3.69
Ribble Valley 5,402 £38,902 £122,833 3.16
Rossendale 8,756 £31,424 £74,852 2.38
South Ribble 12,389 £32,806 £112,199 3.42
West Lancashire 9,270 £32,846 £102,052 3.11
Wyre 9,225 £29,066 £111,117 3.82
Merseyside
Knowsley 10,518 £26,540 £86,754 3.27
Liverpool 35,098 £26,965 £88,359 3.28
Sefton 22,958 £30,725 £109,358 3.56
St. Helens 11,282 £31,529 £94,108 2.98
Wirral 34,401 £29,906 £100,302 3.35
South East 820,275 £39,734 £183,175 4.61
Berkshire
Bracknell Forest UA 102,63 £42,097 £178,969 4.25
Reading UA 21,473 £39,023 £174,411 4.47
Slough UA 13,571 £36,245 £172,727 4.77
West Berkshire UA 15,009 £45,230 £198,057 4.38
Windsor and Maidenhead UA 10,559 £59,154 £244,180 4.13
Wokingham UA 14,316 £51,360 £207,240 4.04
Buckinghamshire
Aylesbury Vale 18,052 £42,283 £177,661 4.20
Chiltern 6,648 £54,356 £264,425 4.86
Milton Keynes UA 27,411 £38,085 £146,155 3.84
South Buckinghamshire 6,294 £58,085 £261,920 4.47
Wycombe 17,213 £44,255 £200,817 4.54
East Sussex
Brighton and Hove UA 32,149 £34,221 £191,860 5.61
Eastbourne 7,536 £26,988 £157,711 5.84
Hastings 6,865 £25,485 £129,189 5.07
Lewes 6,315 £30,776 £180,475 5.86
Rother 7,926 £34,175 £181,155 5.30
Wealden 10,243 £37,242 £192,679 5.17
Hampshire
Basingstoke and Deane 21,033 £42,586 £183,839 4.32
East Hampshire 8,999 £44,195 £193,485 4.38
Eastleigh 14,685 £39,147 £173,746 4.44
Fareham 9,822 £38,633 £159,909 4.14
Gosport 9,646 £32,357 £134,240 4.15
Hart 10,155 £48,323 £215,338 4.46
Havant 10,622 £34,286 £159,774 4.66
New Forest 16,216 £37,883 £187,835 4.96
Portsmouth UA 23,067 £30,718 £141,080 4.59
Rushmoor 11,873 £38,676 £170,530 4.41
Southampton UA 28,974 £31,882 £151,140 4.74
Test Valley 12,662 £38,005 £174,969 4.60
Winchester 10,237 £45,137 £223,102 4.94
Isle of Wight UA 12,377 £27,355 £140,630 5.14
Kent
Ashford 9,771 £38,160 £147,965 3.88
Canterbury 11,089 £32,706 £163,385 5.00
Dartford 9,095 £38,576 £159,072 4.12
Dover 11,096 £28,518 £127,198 4.46
Gravesham 8,084 £34,080 £156,845 4.60
Maidstone 16,743 £37,157 £166,053 4.47
Medway Towns UA 27,203 £33,325 £136,607 4.10
Sevenoaks 9,917 £51,157 £227,126 4.44
Shepway 8,254 £30,561 £144,287 4.72
Swale 13,279 £33,839 £147,417 4.36
Thanet 8,771 £27,245 £126,247 5.00
Tonbridge and Malling 11,053 £42,176 £178,325 4.23
Tunbridge Wells 12,200 £45,343 £200,417 4.42
Oxfordshire
Cherwell 16,245 £36,341 £168,498 4.64
Oxford 12,759 £39,712 £214,275 5.40
South Oxfordshire 14,374 £46,689 £213,238 4.57
Vale of White Horse 11,582 £42,360 £192,246 4.54
West Oxfordshire 7,477 £37,716 £189,569 5.03
Surrey
Elmbridge 9,423 £68,254 £254,469 3.73
Epsom and Ewell 6,982 £45,375 £233,212 5.14
Guildford 14,337 £48,096 £243,218 5.06
Mole Valley 5,793 £43,140 £247,102 5.73
Reigate and Banstead 13,393 £47,245 £224,304 4.75
Runnymede 4,482 £44,703 £220,645 4.94
Spelthorne 8,150 £43,646 £207,990 4.77
Surrey Heath 6,224 £51,321 £212,819 4.15
Tandridge 4,631 £60,304 £226,790 3.76
Waverley 10,773 £52,465 £239,340 4.56
Woking 8,385 £48,502 £213,773 4.41
West Sussex
Adur 5,303 £28,198 £172,312 6.11
Arun 10,495 £32,081 £179,377 5.59
Chicester 8,616 £38,110 £233,324 6.12
Crawley 13,073 £35,753 £165,226 4.62
Horsham 13,098 £44,192 £209,005 4.73
Mid Sussex 14,012 £45,021 £206,301 4.58
Worthing 11,902 £33,585 £171,605 5.11
South West 482,554 £32,444 £151,147 4.66
Avon
Bath and North East Somerset UA 17,401 £36,660 £184,631 5.11
Bristol UA 47,568 £31,314 £143,958 4.60
North Somerset UA 20,613 £36,034 £156,093 4.33
South Gloucestershire UA 26,272 £35,221 £146,831 4.17
Cornwall
Caradon 5,086 £33,660 £128,683 3.82
Carrick 8,093 £29,159 £164,983 5.66
Kerrier 6,203 £26,111 £148,362 5.68
North Cornwall 5,487 £25,161 £164,529 6.54
Penwith 5,661 £28,769 £163,040 5.67
Restormel 9,803 £27,318 £144,474 5.29
Devon
East Devon 8,824 £30,013 £180,675 6.02
Exeter 13,701 £29,491 £150,096 5.09
Mid Devon 5,193 £34,278 £151,871 4.43
North Devon 6,877 £27,356 £148,390 5.42
Plymouth UA 30,002 £29,638 £110,010 3.71
South Hams 5,963 £32,239 £173,529 5.38
Teignbridge 9,262 £29,847 £151,787 5.09
Torbay UA 12,517 £25,140 £145,954 5.81
Torridge* 4,782 £24,142 £157,209 6.51
West Devon*✝ 3.221 £30,903 £167,697 5.43
Dorset
Bournemouth UA 21,218 £29,298 £166,733 5.69
Christchurch ✝ 1,983 £28,594 £191,945 6.71
East Dorset 5,536 £37,978 £203,191 5.35
North Dorset 5,573 £32,668 £162,371 4.97
Poole UA 12,360 £34,786 £179,949 5.17
Purbeck*✝ 2.739 £30,134 £176,662 5.86
West Dorset 6,011 £32,645 £167,901 5.14
Weymouth and Portland 5,560 £29,449 £153,635 5.22
Gloucestershire
Cheltenham 12,932 £35,948 £159,563 4.44
Cotswold 8,761 £38,586 £185,144 4.80
Forest of Dean 8,572 £29,469 £136,183 4.62
Gloucester 12,309 £31,855 £118,652 3.72
Stroud 10,745 £36,055 £150,240 4.17
Tewkesbury 6,200 £35,744 £149,602 4.19
Somerset
Mendip 9,743 £32,209 £144,073 4.47
Sedgemoor 8,362 £30,992 £135,212 4.36
South Somerset 13,262 £32,942 £134,412 4.08
Taunton Deane 10,839 £29,113 £144,747 4.97
West Somerset*✝☦ 1,802 £24,165 £164,245 6.80
Wiltshire
Kennet 8,109 £39,061 £153,088 3.92
North Wiltshire 12,824 £41,232 £168,946 4.10
Salisbury 11,763 £32,574 £168,680 5.18
Swindon UA 22,100 £38,599 £131,436 3.41
West Wiltshire 11,442 £33,036 £138,036 4.18
West Midlands 499,106 £30,889 £117,315 3.80
Hereford and Worcestershire
Bromsgrove 8,232 £39,909 £156,886 3.93
Herefordshire UA 14,199 £23,508 £144,115 4.88
Malvern Hills 5,302 £36,071 £164,864 4.57
Redditch 6,122 £32,059 £112,719 3.52
Worcester 12,567 £36,623 £134,252 3.67
Wychavon 12,105 £34,071 £169,381 4.97
Wyre Forest 9,381 £30,972 £120,100 3.88
Shropshire
Bridgnorth 4,593 £35,955 £161,054 4.48
North Shropshire 6,085 £29,126 £127,859 4.39
Oswestry✝ 3,350 £24,979 £120,549 4.83
Shrewsbury and Atcham 12,549 £29,702 £139,727 4.70
South Shropshire*✝ 3,375 £30,139 £150,167 4.98
Telford and the Wrekin UA 20,405 £31,157 £101,493 3.26
Staffordshire
Cannock Chase 11,698 £27,573 £113,925 4.13
East Staffordshire 10,752 £30,737 £109,212 3.55
Lichfield 8,714 £35,314 £146,474 4.15
Newcastle-under-Lyme 10,917 £28,901 £85,516 2.96
South Staffordshire 9,174 £29,977 £118,600 3.96
Stafford 13,095 £32,495 £113,178 3.48
Staffordshire Moorlands 6,832 £29,666 £110,484 3.72
Stoke-on-Trent UA 25,395 £24,539 £71,837 2.93
Tamworth 8,185 £30,061 £108,414 3.61
Warwickshire
North Warwickshire 5,297 £32,012 £118,108 3.69
Nuneaton & Bedworth 10,888 £31,836 £101,336 3.18
Rugby 8,453 £38,109 £124,858 3.28
Stratford-on-Avon 7,322 £40,948 £186,242 4.55
Warwick 15,128 £37,221 £164,539 4.42
West Midlands
Birmingham 83,931 £28,806 £116,937 4.06
Coventry 26,765 £30,719 £102,080 3.32
Dudley 28,432 £30,968 £110,064 3.55
Sandwell 27,738 £28,474 £94,100 3.30
Solihull 17,790 £38,591 £163,003 4.22
Walsall 22,786 £27,718 £91,168 3.29
Wolverhampton 22,549 £28,107 £88,604 3.15
Yorkshire and Humber 511,539 £28,957 £99,642 3.44
Humberside
East Riding of Yorkshire UA 28,442 £30,263 £110,629 3.66
Kingston Upon Hull UA 27,020 £25,746 £63,563 2.47
North East Lincolnshire UA 15,873 £23,203 £78,303 3.37
North Lincolnshire UA 15,757 £28,031 £90,652 3.23
North Yorkshire
Craven* 3.945 £35,205 £140,673 4.00
Hambleton 8,290 £34,316 £154,719 4.51
Harrogate 15,951 £37,134 £164,002 4.42
Richmondshire 5,553 £31,372 £121,663 3.88
Ryedale* 4,082 £28,898 £141,788 4.91
Scarborough 7,309 £26,221 £111,617 4.26
Selby 6.690 £30,826 £123,818 4.02
York UA 18,956 £32,591 £142,269 4.37
South Yorkshire
Barnsley 22,739 £26,643 £81,364 3.05
Doncaster 34,226 £27,593 £81,159 2.94
Rotherham 26,361 £26,024 £83,544 3.21
Sheffield 52,121 £27,091 £96,701 3.57
West Yorkshire
Bradford 44,771 £28,918 £81,441 2.82
Calderdale 18,313 £30,596 £97,361 3.18
Kirklees 42,428 £29,666 £94,653 3.19
Leeds 80,060 £30,083 £111,082 3.69
Wakefield 32,652 £29,165 £97,328 3.34
England 5,002,470 £36,549 £150,235 4.11

Notes:
* House price data samples fewer than 50
✝Households and employment data samples fewer than 30
☦ Income data samples fewer than 50 

Appendix 2 Data sources and methodology for the construction of the 2003 house price to income ratios

This note provides a brief outline to the data sources and the methodology applied in the construction of the 2003 house price to income ratios. The ratios are based on gross household earned incomes and the prices of two- and three-bedroom dwellings.

However, the results for the areas where the income, employment and house price figures are based on small samples must be treated with caution. This applies, in particular, to the three areas where the house price, employment and income figures are all based on small samples (Berwick-upon-Tweed, Teesdale and West Somerset) and in the areas with the lowest number of working households in the country (West Somerset, Christchurch, Teesdale and Berwick-upon-Tweed).

Two of these areas, West Somerset and Christchurch, were found to have the highest ratio of house price to household gross earned income in the country, so the figures should be treated with particular caution.

House prices
The house prices are lower quartile prices and mean average prices for two- and three-bedroom dwellings, taken from the Survey of Mortgage Lenders. The data, for the fourth quarter of 2003, has been weighted on the basis of an even mix of both sizes of dwelling in every local area. This provides a consistent measure of prices for modestly sized family dwellings. In most cases, the Survey of Mortgage Lenders provides a substantial sample at the local level. However, in a few cases, the sample for two- and three-bedroom dwellings fell below fifty. The areas concerned (with sample sizes in brackets) are: Teesdale (20), Berwick-upon-Tweed (27), South Shropshire (27), Ryedale (28), West Somerset (30), Castle Morpeth (31), Eden (31), Alnwick (34), Craven (37), Rutland (38), Purbeck (43), Torridge (45), West Devon (47) and Derbyshire Dales (48).

Incomes
The analyses use local income data for 2000/1 and 2001/02 from the Inland Revenue Survey (IRS). This covers the earned incomes of all individuals aged between 20 and 39 inclusive. This age range has been chosen because the great majority of first-time buyers fall within it. The 2000/01 figures were inflated by 5.2% to 2001/02 values to derive average local earned incomes from the combined years of data. The combined average figures were then inflated by 8.0% to 2003 values. In all but three areas, the IRS local data was based on a local sample of more than 50 cases for the two years combined. The three small samples were Teesdale (37), Berwick-upon-Tweed (43) and West Somerset (47).

Regional household incomes
Robust data on household incomes is not available at the local authority level. Regional data on gross household earned incomes, analysed by the numbers of adult workers in each household, has been obtained from the Expenditure and Food Survey (EFS) for households with representatives aged between 20 and 39. The data is based on three years of the survey, from 2000/01 to 2002/03, in order to ensure a robust regional sample. For the affordability analysis, this data has been uprated to 2003 levels (by 8.0%). The regional EFS gross household earned income figures provide control totals for the local level estimates of household incomes within each region.

Households and employment
With its enlarged sample size, the Labour Force Survey (LFS) can now provide data on the employment status of households at the local level. LFS data for 2001, 2002 and 2003 has been averaged to show the numbers of households in each local authority area, broken down into categories based on the numbers of people in each household in employment. The data shows the numbers of households with nil, one or two or more workers aged 20 to 39. However, even using three years' data, the samples for some areas are very small. The data for twelve areas are based on less than 30 cases: Christchurch (14), Berwick-upon-Tweed (16), West Somerset (18), Teesdale (19), Purbeck (24), Rutland (25), Castle Morpeth (25), South Shropshire (26), West Devon (27), Alnwick (27), Oswestry (28), Melton (29).

Local household incomes
Within each local authority area, it is assumed that the relationship between the earned incomes of one earner and multi-earner households corresponds with the regional relationship shown by the Expenditure and Food Survey (EFS) data. Factors are then applied to the local IRS data so that the regional sums of the computed local household earnings, based on the IRS and LFS data, are consistent with the regional EFS figures.

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