Parental involvement in their child's learning is the only area showing robust evidence of causation, and only as a cause of attainment (not participation).
This study reviews all existing evidence on a range of areas, from parental expectations to child substance abuse. The review:
- presents a model of causation for social science;
- provides information from almost 170,000 pieces of evidence;
- summarises the effects of 13 different kinds of belief and behaviour.
The appendices for this report are available on the University of Birmingham's website.
A 'roundup' of the key messages from this programme of work is also available.