The study focuses on the fortunes of seven European cities – Sheffield and Belfast in the UK; Bremen and Leipzig in Germany; Torino, Italy; Saint-Étienne, France; and Bilbao, Spain. Other cities, including several in the United States, were also involved in this programme of work.
This Findings sums up common themes from these cities related to:
- the history and effects of their decline;
- the process and results of recovery;
- what the future might hold.
A book by the same authors – Phoenix cities: The fall and rise of great industrial cities across Europe – reports in detail on the full three-year programme and is due to be published by The Policy Press for JRF in March 2010.